# Chapter 4.2. More Complex Conditions – Exam Problems

The previous chapter introduced you to **nested conditions** in **JavaScript**. Via nested conditions, the program logic in a particular application can be represented using ** if conditional statements** that are nested one into another. We also explained the

**conditional statement that allows selecting from a list of options. Now we are going to solve some practical exercises and make sure we have an in-depth understanding of the material, by discussing a set of more complex problems that had been given to students on exams. Before moving to the problems, let's first recall what nested conditions are:**

`switch-case`

## Nested Conditions

```
if (condition1) {
if (condition2)
// body;
else
// body;
}
```

Remember that it is not a good practice to write deeply nested conditional statements (with more than three levels of nesting). Avoid nesting of more than three conditional statements inside one another. This complicates the code and makes its reading and understanding difficult. |

## Switch-Case Conditions

When the program operation depends on the value of a variable, instead of doing consecutive checks with multiple ** if-else** blocks, we can use the

**conditional statement.**

`switch-case`

```
switch (selector) {
case value1:
statement;
break;
case value2:
statement;
break;
default:
statement;
break;
}
```

The structure consists of:

- Selector - an expression that calculates a particular value.
- Multiple
labels followed by commands, ending in a`case`

.`break`

## Exam Problems

Now, after we refreshed our knowledge on how to use and nested conditional statements to implement more complex conditions and program logic, let's solve some exam problems.

## Problem: On Time for The Exam

A student has to attend **an exam at a particular time** (for example at 9:30 am). They arrive in the exam room at a particular **time of arrival** (for example 9:40 am). It is considered that the student has arrived **on time** if they have arrived **at the time when the exam starts or up to half an hour earlier**. If the student has arrived **more than 30 minutes earlier**, the student has come **too early**. If they have arrived **after the time when the exam starts**, they are **late**.

Write a program that inputs the exam starting time and the time of student's arrival, and prints if the student has arrived **on time**, if they have arrived **early** or if they are **late**, as well as **how many hours or minutes** the student is early or late.

### Input Data

Read the following **four integers** (arguments):

- The first line (argument) contains the
**exam starting time (hours)**– an integer from 0 to 23. - The second line (argument) contains the
**exam starting time (minutes)**– an integer from 0 to 59. - The third line (argument) contains the
**hour of arrival**– an integer from 0 to 23. - The fourth line (argument) contains
**minutes of arrival**– an integer from 0 to 59.

### Output Data

Print the following on the first line on the console:

- "
**Late**", if the student arrives**later**compared to the exam starting time. - "
**On time**", if the student arrives**exactly**at the exam starting time or up to 30 minutes earlier. - "
**Early**", if the student arrives more than 30 minutes**before**the exam starting time.

If the student arrives with more than one minute difference compared to the exam starting time, print on the next line:

- "
**mm minutes before the start**" for arriving less than an hour earlier. - "
**hh:mm hours before the start**" for arriving 1 hour or earlier. Always print minutes using 2 digits, for example "1:05". - "
**mm minutes after the start**" for arriving more than an hour late. - "
**hh:mm hours after the start**" for arriving late with 1 hour or more. Always print minutes using 2 digits, for example "1:03".

### Sample Input and Output

Input | Output | Input | Output |
---|---|---|---|

9 30 9 50 |
Late 20 minutes after the start |
16 00 15 00 |
Early 1:00 hours before the start |

9 00 8 30 |
On time 30 minutes before the start |
9 00 10 30 |
Late 1:30 hours after the start |

14 00 13 55 |
On time 5 minutes before the start |
11 30 8 12 |
Early 3:18 hours before the start |

Input | Output |
---|---|

10 00 10 00 |
On time |

11 30 10 55 |
Early 35 minutes before the start |

11 30 12 29 |
Late 59 minutes after the start |

### Hints and Guidelines

It is recommended to read the assignment a few times, take notes and sketch the examples while thinking before you start with the code. |

#### Processing The Input Data

According to the assignment, we expect **four** lines containing different **integers** to be passed. Examining the provided parameters, we can use the ** Number** type, as it is suitable for the expected values. We simultaneously

**read**the input data and

**parse**the string value to the selected data type for the

**integer**.

Examining the expected output, we can create variables that contain the different output data types, to avoid using the so-called **"magic strings"** in the code.

#### Calculations

After reading the input data, we can now start writing the logic for calculating the result. Let's first calculate the **start time** of the exam **in minutes** for easier and more accurate comparison:

Let's also calculate the **student arrival time** using the same logic:

What remains is to calculate the difference between the two times, to determine **when** and **what time compared to the exam time** the student arrived at:

Our next step is to do the required **checks and calculations**, and finally, we will print the output. Let's separate the code into **two** parts.

- First, let's show when the student arrived – were they
**early**,**late**or**on time**. To do that, we will use anstatement.`if-else`

- After that, we will show the
**time difference**, if the student arrives at a**different time**compared to the**exam starting time**.

To spare one additional check (** else**), we can, by default, assume that the student was late.

After that, according to the condition, we will check whether the difference in times is **more than 30 minutes**. If this is true, we assume that the student is **early**. If we do not match the first condition, we need to check if **the difference is less than or equal to zero (**`<= 0`

**)**, by which we are checking the condition whether the student arrived within the range of **0 to 30 minutes** before the exam.

In all other cases, we assume that the student **was late**, which we set as **default**, and no additional check is needed:

Finally, we need to understand and print **what is the time difference between exam start time and student arrival time**, as well as whether this time difference indicates the time of arrival **before or after the exam start**.

We check whether the time difference is **more than** one hour, to print hours and minutes in the required **format**, or **less than** one hour, to print **only minutes** as a format and description.

We also need to do one more check – whether the time of student's arrival is **before** or **after** the exam start time.

#### Printing The Result

Finally, what remains is to print the result on the console. According to the requirements, if the student arrived right on time (**not even a minute difference**), we do not need to print a second result. This is why we apply the following **condition**:

Actually, for the task, printing the result **on the console** can be done at a much earlier stage – during the calculations. This, however, is not a very good practice. **Why?** Let's examine the idea that our code is not 10 lines, but 100 or 1000! One day, printing the result will not be done on the console, but will be written in a **file** or displayed as a **web application**. Then, how many places in the code you will make changes at, due to such a correction? Are you sure you won't miss some places?

Always consider the code that contains logical calculations as a separate part, different from the part that processes the input and output data. It has to be able to work regardless of how the data is passed to it and where the result will be displayed. |

### Testing in The Judge System

Test your solution here: https://judge.softuni.org/Contests/Practice/Index/932#0.

## Problem: Trip

It is strange, but most people start planning their vacations well in advance. A young programmer from Bulgaria has a **certain budget** and spare time in a particular **season**.

Write a program that accepts **as input the budget and season** and **as output** displays programmer's **vacation place** and **the amount of money they will spend**.

**The budget determines the destination, and the season determines what amount of the budget will be spent**. If the season is summer, the programmer will go camping, if it is winter – he will stay in a hotel. If it is in Europe, regardless of the season, the programmer will stay in a hotel. Each camp or hotel, according to the destination, has its price, which corresponds to a particular **percentage of the budget**:

- If
**100 BGN or less**– somewhere in**Bulgaria**.**Summer**–**30%**of the budget.**Winter**–**70%**of the budget.

- If
**1000 BGN or less**– somewhere in the**Balkans**.**Summer**–**40%**of the budget.**Winter**–**80%**of the budget.

- If
**more than 1000 BGN**– somewhere in**Europe**.- Upon traveling in Europe, regardless of the season, the programmer will spend
**90% of the budget**.

- Upon traveling in Europe, regardless of the season, the programmer will spend

### Input Data

The input data will be read from the console and will consist of **two lines** (arguments):

- The
**first**line (argument) holds**the budget**– a**real number**in the range [**10.00 … 5000.00**]. - The
**second**line (argument) holds**one**of two possible seasons that are "**summer**" or "**winter**".

### Output Data

**Two lines** must be printed on the console.

- On the
**first**line – "**Somewhere in {destination}**" among "**Bulgaria**", "**Balkans**" and "**Europe**". - On the
**second**line – "{**Vacation type**} – {**Amount spent**}".- The
**Vacation**can be in a "**Camp**" or "**Hotel**". - The
**Amount**must be**rounded up to the second digit after the decimal point**.

- The

### Sample Input and Output

Input | Output |
---|---|

50 summer |
Somewhere in Bulgaria Camp - 15.00 |

75 winter |
Somewhere in Bulgaria Hotel - 52.50 |

312 summer |
Somewhere in Balkans Camp - 124.80 |

678.53 winter |
Somewhere in Balkans Hotel - 542.82 |

1500 summer |
Somewhere in Europe Hotel - 1350.00 |

### Hints and Guidelines

Typically, as for the other tasks, we can separate the solution into the following parts:

- Reading the input data
- Doing calculations
- Printing the result

#### Processing The Input Data

While reading carefully the requirements, we understand that we expect **two** parameters of input data. Our first parameter is a **real number**, for which we need to pick an appropriate variable type. For a higher level of calculation accuracy, we can pick ** Number** as a variable for the budget and –

**for the season.**

`String`

Always take into consideration what value type is passed in the input data, as well as what type these need to be converted to, for the program conditions to work properly! |

#### Calculations

Let's create and initialize the variables needed for applying the logic and calculations:

Similar to the example in the previous task, we can initialize variables with some of the output results, to spare additional initialization.

When examining once again the problem requirements, we notice that the main distribution of where the vacation will take place is determined by the **value of the budget**, i.e. our main logic is divided into two cases:

- If the budget is
**less than**a particular value. - If it is
**less than**another value or is**more than**the specified border value.

Based on the way we arrange the logical scheme (the order in which we will check the border values), we will have more or fewer conditions in the solution. **Think why!**

After that, we need to apply a condition to check the value of the **season**. Based on it, we will determine what percentage of the budget will be spent, as well as where the programmer will stay – in a **hotel** or a **camp**.

This is a sample code that may be used to implement the above idea:

We can optimize the conditions checking by assigning a **default value** and then checking one variant less. **This saves one logical step**.

For example, this block:

can be shortened like this:

#### Printing The Result

What remains is to display the calculated result on the console:

### Testing in The Judge System

Test your solution here: https://judge.softuni.org/Contests/Practice/Index/932#1.

## Problem: Operations

Write a program that reads **two integers (n1 and n2)** and an **operator** that performs a particular mathematical operation with them. Possible operations are: **summing up** (** +**),

**subtraction**(

**),**

`-`

**multiplying**(

**),**

`*`

**division**(

**) and**

`/`

**modular division**(

**). Upon summing up, subtracting, and multiplying, the console must print the result and display whether it is an**

`%`

**even**or an

**odd**number. Upon regular division –

**just the result**, and upon modular division –

**the remainder**. You need to take into consideration the fact that

**the divisor can be equal to zero**(

**) and dividing by zero is not possible. In this case, a**

`= 0`

**special notification**must be printed.

### Input Data

**3 arguments** are passed to the function:

**N1**–**integer**within the range [**0 … 40 000**].**N2**–**integer**within the range [**0 … 40 000**].**Operator**–**one character**among: "**+**", "**-**", "*****", "**/**", "**%**".

### Output Data

Print the output as a **single line** on the console:

- If the operation is
**summing up**,**subtraction**or**multiplying**:**"{N1} {operator} {N2} = {output} – {even/odd}"**.

- If the operation is
**division**:**"{N1} / {N2} = {output}"**– the result is**formatted**up**to the second digit after the decimal point**.

- If the operation is
**modular division**:**"{N1} % {N2} = {remainder}"**.

- In case of
**dividing by 0 (zero)**:**"Cannot divide {N1} by zero"**.

### Sample Input and Output

Input | Output | Input | Output |
---|---|---|---|

123 12 / |
123 / 12 = 10.25 | 112 0 / |
Cannot divide 112 by zero |

10 3 % |
10 % 3 = 1 | 10 0 % |
Cannot divide 10 by zero |

Input | Output |
---|---|

10 12 + |
10 + 12 = 22 - even |

10 1 - |
10 - 1 = 9 - odd |

7 3 * |
7 * 3 = 21 - odd |

### Hints and Guidelines

The problem is not complex, but there are a lot of code lines to write.

#### Processing The Input Data

Upon reading the requirements, we understand that we expect **three** parameters of input data. The first **two** parameters are **integers** (within the specified range), and the third one – **an arithmetical symbol**.

#### Calculations

Let's create and initialize the variables needed for the logic and calculations. In one variable we will store **the calculations output**, and in the other one, we will use it for the **final output** of the program.

When carefully reading the requirements, we understand that there are cases where we don't need to do **any** calculations, and simply display a result.

Therefore, we can first check if the second number is ** 0** (zero), as well as whether the operation is a

**division**or a

**modular division**, and then initialize the output.

Let's place the output as a value upon initializing the ** output** parameter. This way we can apply

**only one condition**– whether it is needed to

**recalculate**or

**replace**this output.

Based on the approach that we choose, our next condition will be either a simple ** else** or a single

**. In the body of this condition, using additional conditions regarding the manner of calculating the output based on the passed operator, we can separate the logic based on the**

`if`

**structure**of the expected

**output**.

From the requirements we can see that for **summing up** (** +**),

**subtraction**(

**) or**

`-`

**multiplying**(

**) the expected output has the same structure:**

`*`

**"{n1} {operator} {n2} = {output} – {even/odd}"**, whereas for

**division**(

**) and**

`/`

**modular division**(

**) the output has a different structure.**

`%`

We finish the solution by applying conditions for summing up, subtraction, and multiplying:

For short and clear conditions, such as the above example for even and odd numbers, you can use a **ternary operator**. Let's examine the possibility to apply a condition **with** or **without** a ternary operator.

**Without using a ternary operator** the code is longer but easier to read:

**Upon using a ternary operator** the code is much shorter, but may require additional efforts to read and understand the logic:

#### Printing The Output

Finally, what remains is to print the calculated result on the console:

### Testing in The Judge System

Test your solution here: https://judge.softuni.org/Contests/Practice/Index/932#2.

## Problem: Match Tickets

**A group of football fans** decided to buy **tickets for Euro Cup 2016**. The tickets are sold in **two** price categories:

**VIP**–**499.99**BGN (Bulgarian leva).**Normal**–**Normal**–**249.99**BGN (Bulgarian leva).

The football fans **have a shared budget**, and the **number of people** in the group determines what percentage of the budget will be **spent on transportation**:

**1 to 4**– 75% of the budget**5 to 9**– 60% of the budget**10 to 24**– 50% of the budget**25 to 49**– 40% of the budget**50 or more**– 25% of the budget

**Write a program** that **calculates whether the money left in the budget** will be enough for the football fans to **buy tickets in the selected category**, as well as **how much money** they will **have left or be insufficient**.

### Input Data

The input data contains **exactly 3 lines** (arguments):

- The
**first**line (argument) contains the**budget**– a real number within the range [**1 000.00 … 1 000 000.00**]. - The
**second**line (argument) contains the**category**– "**VIP**" or "**Normal**". - The
**third**line (argument) contains the**number of people in the group**– an integer within the range [**1 … 200**].

### Output Data

**Print the following** on the console as **one line**:

- If the
**budget is sufficient**:- "
**Yes! You have {N} leva left.**" – where**N is the amount of remaining money**for the group.

- "
- If the
**budget is NOT sufficient**:- "
**Not enough money! You need {M} leva.**" – where**M is the insufficient amount**.

- "

**The amounts** must be **formatted up to the second digit after the decimal point**.

### Sample Input and Output

Input | Output | Explanations |
---|---|---|

1000 Normal 1 |
Yes! You have 0.01 leva left. | 1 person: 75% of the budget is spent on transportation.Remaining amount: 1000 – 750 = 250.Category Normal: the ticket price is 249.99 * 1 = 249.99249.99 < 250: the person will have 250 – 249.99 = 0.01 money left |

Input | Output | Explanations |
---|---|---|

30000 VIP 49 |
Not enough money! You need 6499.51 leva. | 49 people: 40% of the budget are spent on transportation.Remaining amount: 30000 - 12000 = 18000. Category VIP: the ticket costs 499.99 * 49.24499.510000000002 < 18000.The amount is not enough 24499.51 - 18000 = 6499.51 |

### Hints and Guidelines

We will read the input data and perform the calculations described in the task requirements, to check if the money will be sufficient.

#### Processing The Input Data

Let's read carefully the requirements and examine what we expect to take as **input data**, what is expected to **return as a result**, as well as what are the **main steps** for solving the problem.

For a start, let's process and save the input data in **appropriate variables**:

#### Calculations

Let's create and initialize the variables needed for doing the calculations:

Let's review the requirements once again. We need to perform **two** different block calculations.

By the first set of calculations, we must understand what part of the budget has to be spent on **transportation**. You will notice that the logic for doing these calculations only depends on the **number of people in the group**. Therefore, we will do a logical breakdown according to the number of football fans.

We will use a conditional statement – a sequence of ** if-else** blocks.

By the second set of calculations, we need to find out what amount will be needed for **purchasing tickets** for the group. According to the requirements, this only depends on the type of tickets that we need to buy.

Let's use a ** switch-case** conditional statement.

Once we have calculated the **transportation costs** and **ticket costs**, what remains is to calculate the final result and understand if the group of football fans will **attend** Euro Cup 2016 or **not**, by the provided the available parameters.

For the output, to spare one ** else condition** in the construction, we will assume that the group can, by default, attend Euro Cup 2016.

#### Printing The Result

Finally, we need to display the calculated result on the console.

### Testing in The Judge System

Test your solution here: https://judge.softuni.org/Contests/Practice/Index/932#3.

## Problem: Hotel Room

A hotel offers **two types of rooms**: **studio and apartment**.

Write a program that calculates **the price of the whole stay for a studio and apartment**. **Prices** depend on the **month** of the stay:

May and October |
June and September |
July and August |
---|---|---|

Studio – 50 BGN/per night |
Studio – 75.20 BGN/per night |
Studio – 76 BGN/per night |

Apartment – 65 BGN/per night |
Apartment – 68.70 BGN/per night |
Apartment – 77 BGN/per night |

The following **discounts** are also offered:

- For a
**studio**, in case of**more than 7**stays in**May and October**:**5% discount**. - For a
**studio**, in case of**more than 14**stays in**May and October**:**30% discount**. - For a
**studio**, in case of**more than 14**stays in**June and September**:**20% discount**. - For an
**apartment**, in case of**more than 14**stays,**no limitation regarding the month: 10% discount**.

### Input Data

The input data contains **exactly two lines** (arguments):

- The
**first**(argument) line contains the**month**–**May**,**June**,**July**,**August**,**September**or**October**. - The
**second**line (argument) is the**number of stays**– integer within the range [**0 … 200**].

### Output Data

In this problem, our currency will be **lv**, which is BGN (Bulgarian lev).
**Print** the following **two lines** on the console:

- On the
**first line**: "**Apartment: { price for the whole stay } lv.**" - On the
**second line**: "**Studio: { price for the whole stay } lv.**"

**The price for the whole stay must be formatted up to two symbols after the decimal point**.

### Sample Input and Output

Input | Output | Comments |
---|---|---|

May 15 |
Apartment: 877.50 lv. Studio: 525.00 lv. |
In May, in case of more than 14 stays, the discount for a studio is 30% (50 - 15 = 35), and for the apartment is 10% (65 - 6.5 = 58.5).The whole stay in the apartment: 877.50 lv.The whole stay in the studio: 525.00 lv. |

Input | Output |
---|---|

June 14 |
Apartment: 961.80 lv. Studio: 1052.80 lv |

August 20 |
Apartment: 1386.00 lv. Studio: 1520.00 lv. |

### Hints and Guidelines

We will read the input data and do the calculations according to the provided price list and the discount rules, and finally, print the result.

#### Processing The Input Data

According to the task requirements, we expect two parameters, that contain the input data - the first parameter is **the month in which the stay is planned**, and the second - **the number of stays**.

Let's process and store the input data in the appropriate parameters:

#### Calculations

Now let's create and initialize the variables needed for the calculations:

When doing an additional analysis of the requirements, we understand that our main logic depends on what **month** is passed and what is the number of **stays**.

In general, there are different approaches and ways to apply the above conditions, but let's examine a basic ** switch-case** conditional statement, as in the individual

**we will use**

`case`

blocks**and**

`if`

**conditional statements.**

`if-else`

Let's start with the first group of months: **May** and **October**. For these two months, **the price for a stay is the same** for both types of accommodation – a **studio** or an **apartment**. Therefore, the only thing that remains is to apply an internal condition regarding the **number of stays** and recalculate **the relevant price** (if needed):

To some extent, the **logic** and **calculations** will be **identical** for the following months:

After calculating the relevant prices and the total amount for the stay, now let's prepare the formatted result. Before that, we should store it in our output **parameters** – ** studioInfo** and

**:**

`apartmentInfo`

To calculate the output parameters, we will use the `.toFixed(Number)`

**method**. This method **rounds the decimal** number up to a **specified number of characters** after the decimal point. In our case, we will round the decimal number up to **2 digits** after the decimal point.

#### Printing The Result

Finally, what remains is to print the calculated results on the console.

### Testing in The Judge System

Test your solution here: https://judge.softuni.org/Contests/Practice/Index/932#4.